Month: October 2014

CCNP Wireless CUWSS 642-732 Summary Notes 1 : Site Survey Requirements for Different Vertical Industries

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A site survey is a task-by-task process in which the surveyor studies the facility to understand the RF behavior, discovers RF coverage areas, checks for RF interference, and determines the appropriate placement of wireless devices.

Top considerations:

  • Identify Customer Requirements  and his expectations. What type of environment?
  • Consider the regulatory issues for that particular site
  • Asses the network before deployment
  • Consider logistics.
  • Consider the models that we will use on the site Read the rest of this entry »

Cisco Prime: Unit of Measurement for Maps ( Meters and Feet)

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Thought I would put up a quick post regarding unit of measurements for the Maps.

CPI comes with feet as the default unit and this can be an issue for countries that use meters. I could always recalculate my length in meters and input it in CPI until a client made a rather rude comment like “we do not use feet in our country and I do not expect to see that in documents”. Ok, it was not rude, it’s a fact, but could he not put it in a different way? Read the rest of this entry »

Cisco Wireless: MSE Patch for Bash Code Injection Vulnerability , aka Shellshock [(CVE-2014-6271, CVE-2014-7169]

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  1. Download the patch from Cisco.com2014_10_24_13_37_52_Cisco_Systems
  2. Backup the MSE via cisco prime. Refer to my post step 12 and 13

    Cisco Wireless: Upgrading MSE from v7.5 to v8.0 via Cisco Prime

  3. SSH to the MSE
  4. Stop the MSE software2014_10_24_13_43_25_MSE_NMDCBPMSE100_172.20.74.188_SecureCRT
  5.  Copy the downloaded file, to the /tmp directory on MSE2014_10_24_15_01_18_MSE_8.0_Upgrade_mrn_cciew
  6.  Login to the MSE as root and navigate to /tmp directory2014_10_24_15_04_07_MSE_NMDCBPMSE100_172.20.74.188_SecureCRT
  7. Unzip the files 2014_10_24_15_06_24_MSE_NMDCBPMSE100_172.20.74.188_SecureCRT
  8. Perform patch2014_10_24_15_09_19_MSE_NMDCBPMSE100_172.20.74.188_SecureCRT
  9. Start MSE 2014_10_24_15_14_10_MSE_NMDCBPMSE100_172.20.74.188_SecureCRT
  10. Verify MSE status from 2014_10_24_15_19_18_Cisco_Prime_Infrastructure_All_Servers_172.20.74.187

And that is all 🙂


  1. GNU Bash Environment Variable Command Injection Vulnerability

CWNA Summary Notes: Coverage Analysis Methods

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Manual Site Survey

Passive manual survey – The radio card collects RF measurements but the client adapter is not associated to the access point during the survey, and all information is received from radio signals that exist at layer 1.

Active manual survey – the radio card is associated to the access point and has layer 2 connectively, allowing for low-level frame transmissions. If layer 3 connectivity is also established, ping traffic is sent in 802.11 data frame transmissions. RF measurements, packet loss and re-transmission percentage recorded.

Moth types of survey are recommended. Read the rest of this entry »

CWNA Summary Notes: Site Survey Tools

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Indoor Site Surveys Tools

  1. Spectrum analyzer for RF spectrum analysis
  2. Blueprints or floor plans of the facility
  3. Received signal strength measurement tool
  4. 802.11 client card – prefer the vendor that will be deployed
  5. AP – preferably 2.
  6. Battery pack for AP and for the laptop
  7. Binoculars to view distant objects ( eg high ceiling and in the ceiling)
  8. Walkie-talkies or cellular phones for communication with site survey partners etc
  9. Antennas, both omni-directional and indoor semi-directional
  10. Temporary mounting gear – Bungee cords, plastic ties, duct tape, tripod
  11. Digital camera to record the exact placement of the APs and site specific information
  12. Measuring wheel (best p[tion) or laser measuring meter to measure cable distances
  13. Colored electrical tape to mark where AP was mounted. Advisable to use different colours for different channels.
  14. Ladder or forklift to mount the APs

Read the rest of this entry »

CWNA Summary Notes: Spectrum and Coverage Analysis

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Spectrum Analysis

A noisy environment can cause the data in 802.11 transmissions to become corrupted -> the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) will fail -> the receiving 802.11 radio will not send an ACK frame to the transmitting 802.11 radio -> the unicast frame is not acknowledged
and will have to be re-transmitted. Wi-Fi data networks can handle a retransmission rate of up to 10 percent, but a Voice over Wi-Fi (VoWiFi) network needs to limit packet loss to a rate of 2 percent or less. Read the rest of this entry »

CWNA Summary Notes: Vertical Market Considerations

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A vertical market is a particular industry or group of businesses in which similar products or services are developed and marketed.

Outdoor Surveys

  • Weather proof APs (eg ruggedized) may need to be deployed.
  • Site Survey kits with Mesh APs may be needed.
  • Consider the weather conditions. Most appliances will need to be protected from weather elements by using NEMA rated enslosure units (NEMA – National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
  • Safety – hire professional installers.
  • Consider RF considerations set by the local government.

Read the rest of this entry »

CWNA Summary Notes: Capacity and Coverage Requirements

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Capacity and Coverage Requirements

Factors that should be considered when planning for Capacity:

  • Data applications.
    • For 802.11b/g network, 12 to 15 data users per AP
    • ForVoWiFi
      • SpectraLink recommends max of 12 calls per 11 Mbps cell (with 1 call needing 4.5 % of AP bandwidth), 7 calls per 2 Mbps (with 1 call needing 12% of AP bandwidth). This can be predicted using the Erlang Formula. Erlang – one hour of telephone traffic in one hour of time.
  • User density. A high concentration of human bodies can attenuate the RF signal due to absorbtion.Consider:
    • How many users currently need wireless access
    • How many users many need connectivity in the future
    • Where are the users
  • Peak on/off use
  • Existing transmitters
    • Previously installed 802.11 network
    • Interfering devices
      • microwaves
      • cordless headsets
      • cordless phones
      • wireless machinery
  • Mobile vs Mobility
    • When one is mobile – disconnect may be ok (moving with the laptop from one desk to another). roaming may not be a requirement.
    • For mobility – user must be connected 100% of the time when travelling through the facility eg
      • VoWiFi
      • Warehouse scanning applications
  • 802.11g protection mechanism. This will always affect throughput due to backward compatibility with 802.11b HR-DSSS clients that support a max data raet e of 11 Mbps as compared to 54 Mbps for the 11g clients.

Read the rest of this entry »

CWNA Summary Notes: Procedures for Performing a Site Survey

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Gather background data for the site survey

Examine business requirements

  • Why do they need a WLAN
  • is mobility required
  • What devices will be connecting
  • What apps will be used
  • What is the amount of bandwidth required by the user

Read the rest of this entry »

CWNA Summary Notes: Specialized Site Survey Tools

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These tools include:

  • dedicated site survey applications
  • spectrum analyzers
  • protocol analyzers
  • documentation tools
  • Voice over WiFi (VoWiFi) Tools and Surveys

Read the rest of this entry »

Cisco Wireless: Upgrading Cisco Prime Infrastructure (CPI) 2.0 to 2.1

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I hate it when Cisco comes up with a feature or new release of the WLC or the APs, and we have to wait forever to get support for MSE, CPI etc!! How are they supposed to function in the meantime??

The issue is that I have the new 3700 APs and now that am running CPI 2.0, I cannot manage or even see them without having to upgrade the CPI.

Anyway, at least I get to play with my toys 🙂

Verify version

We can perform an inline upgrade of CPI from 2.0 to 2.1 without having to do a system migration. System migration is best and recommended because you perform a completely new installation then copy database. I however chose to take advantage of the inline upgrade because it’s easier 🙂 and I do not have to copy / re-host licences.

Read the rest of this entry »

CWNA Summary Notes: What is a Site Survey

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A Site Survey is an in-depth examination and analysis of a WLAN site.

Purpose of a Site Survey

  • Achieve the best possible performance from the WLAN
  • Certify that the installation will operate as promised
  • Determine the best location for APs
  • Develop networks optimized for a variety of applications
  • Ensure that the coverage will fulfill the organization’s requirements
  • Locate any unauthorized APs on the network
  • Map any nearby wireless networks to determine existing radio interference
  • Reduce radio interference as much as possible
  • Make the wireless network secure

Read the rest of this entry »