CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 3 : Location Tracking Techniques – Lateration (ToA and TDoA)

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Distance-Based (Lateration) Techniques

The tracking position is determined based on distance. The distance can be measured in three different ways:

  • Using Time of Arrival (ToA)
  • Using Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA)
  • Using Received Signal Strength

In ToA and TDoA, localization is based on propagation time, whereas for RSS systems, propagation is based on signal strength.

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CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 2 : Location Tracking Techniques – Cell of Origin

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Tracking systems are classified by the measurement technique that they use. Real Time Location Systems (RTLS) are grouped into the following:

  • Cell of Origin ( Nearest Cell)
  • Lateration ( depending on Distance)
  • Angulation (depending on the angle)
  • Location patterning ( pattern recognition)

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CCNP Wireless 642-747 IUWMS Summary Notes 1 : Introduction to Location-Based Services

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Advantages of Location-based services.

Location-based services helps us to:

  1. Effectively locate assets and personnel.
  2. Improve productivity by locating effectively.
  3. Reduce unauthorized removal of assets and, thus, helps reduce losses.
  4. Improve customer satisfaction
  5. Improve WLAN planning and tuning
  6. Coordinate device location with Security policy enforcement
  7. Determine rogue device location
  8. Monitor health and status of key assets.


  1. Wi-Fi Location-Based Services 4.1 Design Guide by Cisco Press.